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Tools Used for Ancient Egyptian Rituals Discovered in an Archaeological Dig

By: April Carson

At the site of the ancient city of Buto in northern Egypt, archaeologists discovered items linked to Hathor's religion - faience incense burners, a piece of a limestone column depicting the goddess, and other relics. The discoveries were made on the premises of a temple that dates from the reigns of the XXVI and XXV dynasties (664-525 B.C.) at the site of Buto, also known as Tell el Farain, about 20 miles northwest of Cairo.

Everything you need to know about Buto, the ancient Egyptian city

Buto, which the Egyptians called Per-Wadjet, was one of Egypt's oldest cities. It grew in the Delta's western region before Egypt's unification during the fourth millennium BC and presumably dominated Lower Egypt before then. The town is located near Kafr el-Sheikh in the Tell el-Farain hills, 95 kilometers east of Cairo.

Buto was the religious center of Wadjet, the royal power goddess. The Wadjet symbol – a standing cobra – as well as the vulture, who personified Upper Egyptian goddess Nekhbet, became an ornament on the kings' crowns for three millennia.

Despite the fact that dynastic rulers stripped the city of political significance, it continued to be an important religious center. For example, Thutmose III, renowned for his conquests in Asia and famous for founding the world's first national park, left a memorial stele in the local Ouadjit temple that credits him with offerings to the sanctuary.

Everything you need to know about Buto's current archaeological finds

The city of Buto experienced a golden era in the first millennium BC. Archaeological excavation has revealed that the city had a significant increase in temple construction during this period. As a result, archaeologists announced the discovery of ruins from a sanctuary constructed during the reign of Psamtik I's XXVI dynasty (642-610 BC). Fragments from many steles were also unearthed, engraved with prayers and offering rituals.

Psammetichus I established his capital in the ancient city of Sais, not far from Buto, after a difficult era of rule by the Nubian dynasty and the Assyrian conquest of Egypt. To restore the country's former glory and strengthen its position, he urged Egyptians to convert to spiritual beliefs, supported religious sites in neighboring ancient cities and created a new capital district.

A pro-active approach to restoring spiritual culture, which deteriorated after the Third Transitional Period upheaval when the New Kingdom fell and Egypt lost its autonomy, may be seen in Herodotus's description of how Psamtik I responded to the oracle at Buto.

The find of Egyptian archaeologists led by Hossam Ghoneim on the temple complex in Buto provided confirmation that Psamtik I and his successors paid close attention to Per-Wadjet. Scientists have discovered several ritual artifacts connected with the goddess Hathor, who was the patroness of joy, love, fertility, and motherhood, as well as the patroness of art, dance, music, and sexuality.

Ceramic bowls, earthenware incense burners (one of which has the likeness of Horus), and a piece of limestone column debris were among the findings. A relief image of Hathor carved on a Hathorian face with cow ears, wearing a wig with distinctive curls, was carved on such columns.

A necklace with a figure of Horus in it and green gems was also discovered. It is made up of three parts (torso, arms, and legs). It symbolizes fertility and rebirth, which were represented by the goddess Isis when she resurrected Osiris's dismembered body after his murder at the hands of Seth. Thoth was one of Egypt's most important gods. He was called the scribe of the heavens and he recorded all events that took place on earth. This is why Thoth became the god of wisdom, magic, and writing.

Golden objects

In addition to the golden "eye of Horus," archaeologists have discovered traces of gilding in the form of scales during excavation. This implies that some cult objects were covered with a layer of gold, suggesting their incorruptibility.

Dr. Aymen Ashmawy, the head of Egypt's Ministry of Antiquities' Ancient Egyptian city excavation division, revealed other finds made during the dig. These are ivory artifacts that show scenes of giving gifts, daily routines, and plant and animal motifs.


The most significant are hieroglyphic inscriptions, which state that scientists were able to determine which rulers cared for the temple. These are Psamtik I (the inscriptions list his entire title, which included five names) and Amasis (567-526 BC), or Ahmose II (526-539 BC), Greek ruler of the northern part of Egypt by the Ptolemaic Dynasty.

Other remains

Archaeologists have also found a sacred water reservoir made of polished limestone in Buto, which was lined with finely polished stones. Another structure built out of raw bricks from the Hellenistic era (late 4th to early 1st centuries BC) has been discovered as well. It included a pool and a system of water heating, supply, and drainage, which seemed to have been a communal bathroom.

Meditation Monday: 432 Hz Tuning Fork by Billy Carson


About the Blogger:

April Carson is the daughter of Billy Carson. She received her bachelor's degree in Social Sciences from Jacksonville University, where she was also on the Women's Basketball team. She now has a successful clothing company that specializes in organic baby clothes and other items. Take a look at their most popular fall fashions on

To read more of April's blogs, check out her website! She publishes new blogs on a daily basis, including the most helpful mommy advice and baby care tips! Follow on IG @bossbabymav







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