By: April Carson
Bruno Bento and his researchers have published new findings showing that the universe had no beginning. This research disputes the common belief that the universe was created during the Big Bang about 14 billion years ago.
Was there a beginning to our universe and did the Big Bang occur?
Physicist Bruno Bento and his colleagues set out to discover what the formation of the cosmos would have looked like before the Big Bang singularity. After looking at how slow the rate of expansion was before the Big Bang, they found that it would have been so small that quantum effects might have played a very important role.
It is thought that all time after the Big Bang would be only an apparent time, because what we call "time" would not exist in reality. It has no meaning before the Big Bang. Quantum physics could have begun before this point, and it allows for a "many worlds interpretation," which is when a quantum event occurs, it branches into different universes.
They discovered that there are many inconsistencies when comparing widely accepted ideas. Quantum physics and general relativity are considered to be the most trustworthy of all physical theories in regards to describing the universe. At the same time, three of the four fundamental forces of nature have been successfully represented by quantum physics, but gravity, from its position, does not seem to belong.
General relativity is, nevertheless, the most complete description of gravity ever devised. However, it fails to address two key questions. When investigating the centers of black holes and the formation mechanism of the Universe, this theory does not provide dependable findings.
The most contentious aspects of string theory are known as "singularities" – points in space-time where the rules of physics that we understand cease to function. Simultaneously, calculations reveal that gravity becomes extremely strong even on a microscopic scale within both singularities.
According to Hawking, singularities are real and lie at the heart of black holes. They may be part of the fabric of reality – a hint that our universe has no boundaries. But can we go further? Can we argue that an infinitely dense point known as a "singularity" exists somewhere within space-time?
Theory of causal sets
The researchers decided to focus on another idea called the theory of causal sets as a way to solve the inconsistencies. This is a mathematical hypothesis about space-time's discrete structure that is used in quantum gravity research.
New understanding of space and time
According to Bento, this method of thinking about space and time upends our conventional notions of space and time, proposing that reality is made up of tiny pieces or “space-time atoms.” According to the theory, events may not be closer than the size of an "atom." This would prevent singularities from forming and tear apart time and cause a "big rip" event, he said.
"If you try to talk about the beginning of time, it's very different from what we think of as a traditional beginning," Lambert told Space.com.
Big Bang singularity
In their study, the authors claim that the notion of causal sets solves the Big Bang singularity problem because singularities can't exist in this theory. Matter isn't capable of being compressed to infinitesimal dimensions - it can't be smaller than an "atom" in space-time.
The classic idea is that the causal set developed from nothing and evolved into the universe, according to Bento. The authors of the study's alternative view, on the other hand, claims that since the causal set is endless, there was no “beginning of Universe” because it does not exist.
What if the universe had no beginning?
Physicists reached the conclusion that the universe may not have had a beginning, therefore it has always existed. And what we perceive as the Big Bang could only be “a unique moment in this always-existing causal set's evolution, not its true birth.”
The authors of the study are Raphael Bousso, currently an associate professor at the University of California at Berkeley, and Joseph Polchinski from the University of California in Santa Barbara. It was not easy for them to come to this conclusion.
They had to develop a new mathematical object called causal set - a structure that contains all possible spacetime events and it has a well-defined beginning and end.
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