By: April Carson
Our models of the Universe become increasingly messy out in space's dark expanse. A new research regarding ultra-diffuse dwarf galaxy AGC 114905 has resurrected a contentious idea (or, more accurately, a hypothesis), giving us more questions than answers about what causes our galaxies to function.
AGC 114905 is an ultra diffuse dwarf galaxy. That means it's mostly made up of dark matter, with very little luminous material. This makes it difficult to study, because there's not much to see.
It all begins with dark matter - or, in this case, no dark matter. Although most cosmologists think that there is something out there called "dark matter," causing spiral galaxies to rotate faster than they should, even dark matter doesn't provide us with all of the answers we require.
So, it's not a bad idea to explore other alternatives. You know, just in case we don't succeed in locating anything.
One of the most popular alternative theories of gravity is MOND, or Modified Newtonian Dynamics. Developed in the 1980s by Mordehai Milgrom, MOND posits that there is no dark matter - instead, gravity behaves differently on large scales than it does on small scales.
Another theory that has been suggested is Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) or the Milgromian dynamic framework. This hypothesis, which was first proposed by physicist Mordehai Milgrom in 1983, suggests that we don't require dark matter to fill in the Universe's gravity gaps if we calculate gravitational forces felt by stars outside of galactic regions using a method other than as prescribed by Newtonian laws.
We need to be looking at the speeds of galaxies, particularly weird ones like ultra-diffuse galaxies, in order to test this hypothesis, which involves using proportionality with respect to the star's radius or centripetal acceleration.
The galaxy world's faint, ugly ducklings have a propensity to rebel against galactic norms. Some extremely diffuse galaxies appear to be almost entirely made up of dark matter, yet others are almost completely devoid of dark matter.
The combination of AGC 114905 and XWDM has allowed us to solve this problem. This was an area of interest since the 1960s, when it became apparent that quasars were exceptionally bright sources of radio emissions. As a result, we may expect more than one kind of quasar evolution in addition to naked QSOs and H II regions as described above. -> This is where AGC 114905 comes in. In 2021, there was a study published describing how fast this distant dwarf galaxy spins.
This team, on the other hand, discovered that the galaxy's spin was extremely sluggish — slow enough that not only did they not require dark matter to verify the models, but also the galaxy's rotation curve destroyed MOND. It doesn't support either idea. "The unexpectedly low observed rotation speed of this galaxy is at odds with both MOND theory and the conventional technique involving dark matter," says University of St Andrews physicist Hongsheng Zhao, one of the study's authors.
"However, only MOND is able to reconcile this apparent conflict."
The new paper has "un-debunked" the 2021 result, suggesting that it's not MOND's fault. "This is a really weird turn of events," says study co-author James Bullock, an astronomer at the University of California, Irvine. "We went in thinking we had solved the problem and now it appears that MOND has been resurrected."
When we examine distant galaxies in the depths of space, it's sometimes difficult to know which angle we're viewing. AGC 114905 was discovered to be elliptical, implying that we're viewing the galaxy from a particular perspective.
Simulations have shown the galaxy might appear elliptical even if it's facing us head-on, according to researchers. A variation in the galaxy's angle to us would also alter how fast it rotates, bringing all of MOND arithmetic together.
The new research also confirms prior studies indicating that the rotation of AGC 114905 may be considerably more rapid than previously assumed, in line with MOND expectations. "Our simulations show that AGC 114905's inclination may be significantly lower than reported, implying that the galaxy is really spinning much faster than people believe, in line with MOND predictions," explains lead author Indranil Banik from the University of St Andrews.
The situation is still uncertain. We don't know if the next work, or the one from 2021, will be declared winner – or at least most correct. The race is on, and it's a fun one to watch.
Meanwhile, if this new discovery pans out as expected, the MOND theory may have a few more days in it. Despite MOND's wildness and the fact that dark matter remains undiscovered, and despite all of the other issues that remain to be addressed, we need every possibility available to us.
The study has been published in the Royal Astronomical Society's Monthly Notices.
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About the Blogger:
April Carson is the daughter of Billy Carson. She received her bachelor's degree in Social Sciences from Jacksonville University, where she was also on the Women's Basketball team. She now has a successful clothing company that specializes in organic baby clothes and other items. Take a look at their most popular fall fashions on bossbabymav.com
To read more of April's blogs, check out her website! She publishes new blogs on a daily basis, including the most helpful mommy advice and baby care tips! Follow on IG @bossbabymav
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